Atom (Greek ἄτομος or átomos meaning "indivisible") - is the smallest particle of a chemical element that retains its chemical properties. (Since until the advent of quantum mechanics dividing a material object was invariably equated with cutting it, átomos is usually translated as "indivisible".) Where as the word atom originally denoted a particle that cannot be cut into smaller particles, the atoms of modern parlance are composed of subatomic particles.
Anecdote - is a short tale narrating an interesting or amusing biographical incident. It may be as brief as the setting and provocation of a bon mot. An anecdote is always based on real life, an incident involving actual persons, whether famous or not, in real places. However, over time, modification in reuse may convert a particular anecdote to a fictional piece, one that is retold but is "too good to be true". Sometimes humorous, anecdotes are not jokes, because their primary purpose is not simply to evoke laughter, but to reveal a truth more general than the brief tale itself, or to delineate a character trait or the workings of an institution in such a light that it strikes in a flash of insight to their very essence.
Bioelectric - Relating to the effects of electricity on living tissues. For example, in organic cells, the chains of polar amino acids forming the receptor proteins "antennas" (Integral Membrane Protein) of the cells, are sensitive to the polarity of electrical charges. The polarity of incoming charges attract or repulse the receptor heads hence creating motion. A change of electrical polarity therefore creates a mechanical effect.
Cell Membrane - A cell membrane, plasma membrane or plasmalemma is a selectively permeable lipid bilayer coated by proteins which comprises the outer layer of a cell. The plasma membrane works between the machinery on the inside of the cell and the outside fluid that bathes the cells. The plasma membrane lets nutrients into the cell such as glucose, amino acids, and lipids. It is a semi-fluid patchwork of molecules, some of which are constantly diffusing through the membrane.
Electromagnetism - is based upon the fundamental observation that a moving charge produces a magnetic field and that a charge moving in a magnetic field will experence a force. The flow of electric charges (electric current) in electrical conductors, is related to the shape of the conductor and the magnetic properties ot the medium around it by Ampère's law.
Epilepsy (sometimes referred to as a seizure disorder) - is a common chronic neurological condition that is characterized by recurrent unprovoked epileptic seizures. These seizures are transient signs and/or symptoms due to abnormal excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain. It affects approximately 50 million people worldwide. Epilepsy is usually controlled, but not cured, with medication – although surgery may be considered in difficult cases. Not all epilepsy syndromes are lifelong, for example some are confined to particular stages of childhood.
Escherichia coli - usually abbreviated to E. coli, (coli is Latin for "of the colon") discovered by Theodor Escherich, a German pediatrician and bacteriologist, is one of the main species of bacteria that live in the lower intestines of mammals, known as gut flora. Specimens have also been located on the edge of hot springs. According to US Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the E. coli strain O157:H7, one of hundreds of strains of the bacterium E. coli, causes illness in humans. Presence in surface water is a common indicator of fecal contamination. It belongs among the Enterobacteriaceae, and is commonly used as a model organism for bacteria in general. One of the root words of the family's scientific name, "enteric", refers to the intestine, and is often used synonymously with "fecal".
Fulcrum - is the support or point of support on which a lever turns in raising or moving something.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) - is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is responsible for regulating food (humans and animal), dietary supplements, drugs (human and animal), cosmetics, medical devices (human and animal) and radiation emitting devices (including non-medical devices), biologics, and blood products in the United States.
Ground Proximity Warning System (GPWS) - is a system designed to alert pilots if their aircraft is in immediate danger of flying into the ground. Another common name for such a system is Ground-Collision Warning System (GCWS).The system monitors an aircraft's height above ground as determined by radio altimeter. A computer then keeps track of these readings, calculates trends, and will warn the captain with visual and audio messages if the aircraft is in certain defined flying configurations ("modes").
Hypochondria (or hypochondriasis, sometimes referred to as health anxiety or health phobia) - is a somatoform disorder in which one has the unfounded belief that one is suffering from a serious illness. Hypochondria is often characterized by irrational fears of being diseased/dying, obsessions over minor bodily symptoms or imperfections, doubt and disbelief in doctors' diagnosis, constant self-examination and self-diagnosis and preoccupation with one's body. Hypochondriacs often require constant reassurance, sometimes from multiple doctors, family and friends.
Influenza, - commonly known as the flu, is an infectious disease of birds and mammals caused by an RNA virus of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses). In people, common symptoms of influenza are fever, sore throat, muscle pains, severe headache, coughing, and weakness and fatigue. In more serious cases, influenza causes pneumonia, which can be fatal, particularly in young children and the elderly.
Ion channels - are pore-forming proteins that help to establish and control the small voltage gradient that exists across the plasma membrane of all living cells (see cell potential) by allowing the flow of ions down their electrochemical gradient. They are present in the membranes that surround all biological cells.
Immune System - protects the body from infection by pathogenic organisms. It is composed of a complex constellation of cells, organs and tissues, arranged in an elaborate and dynamic communications network. The immune system is, in its simplest form, a cascade of detection and adaptation, culminating in a system that is remarkably effective.
Lodestone - Magnetite, a magnetic mineral form of iron(II), iron(III) oxide FeO one of several iron oxides. A piece of intensely magnetic magnetite that was used as an early form of magnetic compass. Iron, steel and ordinary magnetite are attracted to a magnetic field, including the Earth's magnetic field. Only magnetite with a particular crystalline structure, lodestone, can act as a natural magnet and attract and magnetize iron.
Microprocessor - was born by reducing the word size of the central processing unit from 32 bit to 4 bit, so that it would fit onto a single semiconducting integrated circuit (IC). One or more microprocessors typically serve as a central processing unit (CPU) in a computer system or handheld device.
Nikola Tesla - (Serbian Cyrillic: Никола Тесла) (10 July 1856 - 7 January 1943) was a world-renowned Serb-American inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer and electrical engineer. Tesla is regarded as one of the most important inventors in history. He is well known for his contributions to the discipline of electricity and magnetism in the late 19th and early 20th century. Tesla's patents and theoretical work form the basis of modern alternating current electric power (AC) systems, including the polyphase power distribution systems and the AC motor, with which he helped usher in the Second Industrial Revolution.
Osteoarthritis - (OA, also known as degenerative arthritis or degenerative joint disease, and sometimes referred to as "arthrosis" or "osteoarthrosis" or in more colloquial terms "wear and tear"), is a condition in which low-grade inflammation results in pain in the joints, caused by wearing of the cartilage that covers and acts as a cushion inside joints. As the bone surfaces become less well protected by cartilage, the patient experiences pain upon weight bearing, including walking and standing.
Peripheral neuropathy - is the medical term for damage to nerves of the peripheral nervous system, which may be caused either by diseases of the nerve or from the side-effects of systemic illness. Peripheral neuropathies vary in their presentation and origin, and may affect the nerve or the neuromuscular junction.
Placebo - is from the Latin for "I shall please", is an inactive substance (pill, liquid, etc.), which is administered as if it were a therapy, but which has no therapeutic value other than the placebo effect.
Platelets or thrombocytes - are the cell fragments circulating in the blood that are involved in the cellular mechanisms of primary haemostasis leading to the formation of blood clots. Dysfunction or low levels of platelets predisposes to bleeding, while high levels, although usually asymptomatic, may increase the risk of thrombosis.
Polarization (also spelled polarisation) - is the property of electromagnetic waves, such as light, that describes the direction of their transverse electric field. More generally, the polarization of a transverse wave describes the direction of oscillation in the plane perpendicular to the direction of travel. Longitudinal waves such as sound waves do not exhibit polarization, because for these waves the direction of oscillation is along the direction of travel.
Protein Receptor - is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that binds to a specific molecule (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. Ligand-induced changes in the behavior of receptor proteins result in physiological changes that constitute the biological actions of the ligands.
Radiant energy - is the energy of electromagnetic waves. The term is most commonly used in the fields of radiometry, solar energy, heating and lighting, but is also used less frequently in other fields (such as telecommunications). The quantity of radiant energy may be calculated by integrating radiant flux (or power) with respect to time and, like all forms of energy, its SI unit is the joule. In applications involving transmission of power from one location to another, "radiant energy" is sometimes used to refer to the electromagnetic waves themselves, rather than their energy (a property of the waves).
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) - is traditionally considered a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack the joints. It is a disabling and painful inflammatory condition, which can lead to substantial loss of mobility due to pain and joint destruction. RA is a systemic disease, often affecting extra-articular tissues throughout the body including the skin, blood vessels, heart, lungs, and muscles.
Time immemorial - is time extending beyond the reach of memory, record, or tradition. The implication is that the subject referred to is, or can be regarded as, indefinitely ancient.
Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulator - more commonly referred to as a TENS unit and pronounced tens, is an electronic device that produces electrical signals used to stimulate nerves through unbroken skin. The name was coined by Dr. Charles Burton. The unit is usually connected to the skin using two or more electrodes. A typical battery-operated TENS unit consists of a pulse generator, small transformer, frequency and intensity controls, and a number of electrodes.
Vortex (pl. vortices) - is a spinning, often turbulent, flow (or any spiral motion) with closed streamlines. The shape of media or mass rotating rapidly around a center forms a vortex. It is a flow involving rotation about an axis.
Walter Russell (1871–1963), - A visionary physicist who proposed an astounding 8 octave table of the elements. This table supported the possiblity of transmutation. A controversial figure in physics and cosmology, He posited that the universe was founded on the unifying vibrational principle of rhythmic balanced interchange. His predictions on the shape of the universe were vindicated by pictures taken by the Hubble telescope.
Yin and Yang - originate in ancient Chinese philosophy and metaphysics, which describes two primal opposing but complementary forces found in all things in the universe. Yin (Chinese: 陰/阴; pinyin: yīn; literally "shady place, north slope (hill), south bank (river); cloudy, overcast") is the darker element; it is sad, passive, dark, feminine, downward-seeking, and corresponds to the night. Yang (陽/阳; yáng; "sunny place, south slope (hill), north bank (river); sunshine") is the brighter element; it is happy, active, light, masculine, upward-seeking and corresponds to the day. Yin is often symbolized by water, while Yang is symbolized by fire, or wind.